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Knowledge 知识

The Tankas 疍家

The Tankas (simplified Chinese家; traditional Chinese家; pinyinDànjiāCantonese YaleDaahngā) or boat people are an ethnic subgroup in Southern China[1] who have traditionally lived on junks in coastal parts of GuangdongGuangxiFujianHainan, and Zhejiang, as well as Hong Kong, and Macau. Though many now live onshore, some from the older generations still live on their boats and pursue their traditional livelihood of fishing. Historically, the Tankas were considered to be outcasts. Since they were boat people who lived by the sea, they were sometimes referred to as "sea gypsies" by the Chinese and British. Tanka origins can be traced back to the native ethnic minorities of southern China known historically as the Baiyue who may have taken refuge on the sea and gradually assimilated into Han culture. However, Tanka have preserved many of their native traditions that are not found in Han Chinese culture.

A small number of Tankas also live in parts of Vietnam. There they are called Dan (Đàn) and are classified as a subgroup of the Ngái ethnicity.

疍家(“”字,粤音:“但”daan6,口语中因受“家”gaa1声母语音同化作dang6“邓”),是广东广西福建海南浙江一带,另一种以为家的渔民。由于他们生活在船艇上,他们的脚与生活在陆地上的人略有差别,被歧视称为“曲蹄”,士大夫则雅称之为“艇户”。


客家人

客家民系,俗称“客家族群”或“客家人”,在西方人类学上被简称作“Hakka”(客家语:客家,白话字:Hak-kâ),是汉族的一个分支,也是汉族影响深远的民系之一,为汉族唯一不以地域命名之汉族民系

该民系分布于南方各地,如广东东部(粤东)、北部(粤北)和西部(粤西)片区,以及广西东南部和福建西部(闽西)、江西南部(赣南)、台湾西北部(桃竹苗)及南部(高屏)片区为主要集中地,在四川湖南海南浙江香港等地亦有部分客家人聚居,近代亦有些回迁陕西河南定居。主要由南迁的汉族组成,也融合了一些南方少数民族,形成了一种兼具汉族文化与少数民族文化的独特民系


大万世居

大万世居,深圳十大客家古村落(古民居)之一。坐落在深圳市坪山区大万路33号坪环社区西南的客家村,为大型古堡式客家围屋建筑。建于清朝乾隆年间(1736-1795年),规模宏大,占地1.5万平方米,是全国最大的方形客家围之一。

大万世居平面呈方形,四角建有炮楼,正面有大六楼,均为高高的围墙相连,围墙上有走马廊相通。围龙屋大门向南,门楼上塑有“大万世居”4个大字。大门前为禾坪,再前是月形池塘,禾坪侧仍保留有旗杆石。

据曾氏族人介绍,村里每年要都举办盆菜宴,各地族人、祖籍本村的香港同胞都会赶回来参加,同时大万族人会举行祭祖、舞麒麟等活动,热闹非凡。

大万世居附近的客家围屋还有丰田世居龙田世居鹤湖新居茂盛世居新桥世居西埔新居田丰世居环水楼大田世居吉坑世居新乔世居璇庆新居曾生故居鳌湖老村廻龙世居玉田世居福田世居秀岭世居贵湖塘老围等。